The Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS): scale development, measurement properties, and clinical application. Phys. Ther. 79(4).
OARSI GUIDELINES FOR THE NON-SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF KNEE, HIP, AND POLYARTICULAR OSTEOARTHRITIS
Bannuru, R.R., Osani, M.C., Vaysbrot, E.E., Arden, N.K., Bennell, K., Bierma-Zeinstra, S.M.A., Kraus, V.B., Lohmander, L.S., Abbott, J.H., Bhandari, M., Blanco, F.J., Espinosa, R., Haugen, I.K., Lin, J., Mandl, L.A., Moilanen, E., Nakamura, N., Snyder-Mackler, L., Trojian, T., Underwood, M., McAlindon, T.E. (2019). Osteo. Cartl. 27(11).
In an effort to update and expand upon Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) Guidelines for non-surgical management of knee, hip, and polyarticular osteoarthritis (OA), a panel of experts evaluated systematically-compiled evidence for 60 unique interventions. The evaluation informed the development of updated guidelines, which also included recommendations for patients who experience gastrointestinal (GI) comorbidities, cardiovascular (CV) comorbidities, frailty, and widespread pain and/or depression.
For patients with knee OA and no comorbidities, recommended non-pharmacologic treatments included aquatic exercise, gait aids, cognitive behavioral therapy with an exercise component, and self-management programs. These recommendations were also given to patients with GI, CV, and widespread pain/depression comorbidities. Pharmacologic recommendations for patients with no comorbidities include oral NSAIDs. More specific pharmacological recommendations were provided for patients with each of the four comorbidities.
relevance to levitation
– McGibbon, C.A. et al. 2020. Front. Bioeng. Biotech. doi:10.3389/fbioe.2020.604860, Levitation reduces pain, allowing patients with multicompartmental and patellofemoral knee OA to more fully participate in and benefit from physical exercise 3– Budarick, A.R. et al. (2020) J. Prosthet. Orthot. Under Peer Review..
Additionally, the guidelines remarked on the poor quality of supporting research for biomechanical interventions, including bracing, at the time of the study. Spring Loaded has prioritized an evidence-based approach to the development of Levitation. Recent studies have demonstrated Levitation’s efficacy at unloading joint forces, relieving knee pain, increasing function, and improving overall quality of life 4– Bishop, E.L. et al. (2020) Osteo. Cart. Under Peer Review. 28: S243-S244
– Budarick, A.R. et al. (2020) J. Prosthet. Orthot. Under Peer Review..